Standards, abbreviations and formats of satellite television

DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) is a common open European standard for digital multimedia transmission, providing the best broadcast quality. For satellite systems - DVB-S
DVB, DVB-S, DVB-T, DVB-C (Digital Video Broadcast) - Digital Video Broadcasting - standards developed by the ETSI (European Transmission Standards Institute). DVB-S describes a satellite transmission protocol, DBV-T via digital terrestrial channels, and DVB-C cable broadcasting.
DVB-S is a digital satellite broadcasting format. Its main advantage is that digital television signals can be transmitted via satellite.
DVB-S2 (2 means the next generation) is used for satellite television broadcasting, which includes, among other things, standard definition and high definition video (HDTV), which compresses H .264 (MPEG-4 AVC). DVB-S2 combines the benefits of all the latest advances in channel coding (LDPC codes) and many modulation types (QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSKh, 32APSK). Initially, the S2 standard was created to watch high-quality television (HDTV). DVB-S2, unlike DVB-S, allows you to transfer 30% more information with the same bandwidth. As a result, the cost of the services of the operator providing the connection to this standard is lower. Therefore, many satellite communications operators began to abandon the first version (DVB-S).
DVB-S2X The standard is based on the principles of the DVB-S2 standard. Thanks to Direct Error Correction (FEC), LDPC along with BCH FEC has a number of additional advantages: - lower attenuation options in the range of 5 and 10% (except for indicators available in S2 at 20, 25 and 35%);
- clearer separation and gradation, as well as a greater number of types of modulation and coding;
- other (updated) option packages for linear and non-linear channels;
- scrambling options for emergency situations with the presence of interference from an auxiliary channel;
- combination of channels up to 3 units;


C-band - frequency ranges of 3.40 - 5.25 and 5.725 - 7.075 GHz, allocated for satellite television broadcasting. For a satellite-receive antenna link. The television signal transmitted in the C-band is pre-inverted before being fed to the modulator.
Ku-Band - frequency ranges 10.70 - 12.75 GHz and 12.75 - 14.80 GHz, allocated for satellite television broadcasting and the Internet.
Ka-Band is the frequency range from 18.3-18.8 and 19.7-20.2 GHz for the Satellite - Earth line, and between 27.5 and 31 GHz for the Earth - Satellite line and which is used mainly for data transmission. The French group Eutelsat was one of the first to organize Ka-band Internet transmission from Ka-Sat 9E satellite. A distinctive feature of the Ka-band is its speed and resistance to weather conditions. Ka-band allows you to organize high-speed Internet at a speed of up to 20 Mbps, while other ranges, such as Ku-band, are limited to 2 Mbps.

Broadcast Settings

FEC (Forward Error Correction) - a parameter that determines the level of redundancy during coding in accordance with the Viterbi system used to increase the noise immunity of the stream. A level is indicated by a fraction, which is the ratio of the number of usable bits to the total number of bits. So, the FEC value 3/4 means that 3 control bits are used for 3 useful bits in the stream. The maximum level of redundancy used now in satellite television is 1/2, and the minimum is 7/8. The specific level is selected depending on the width of the radio channel and the power of the satellite repeater.
SR (Symbol Rate) - Symbol rate may still occur as a "flow rate" - this parameter indicates the density of the information flow in the satellite signal.
PID - stream identifier. Numbers defining the addresses of elementary streams in the general transport stream received from the satellite. Information about the location of elementary streams is transmitted as part of the transport stream. All modern digital receivers have the ability to automatically find the necessary PIDs. However, some digital program providers use PIDs that are not provided by the DVB standard, and receivers are not able to automatically allocate the necessary streams. In such cases, manual input of PIDs, which is provided in many receivers, can help.
V-Pid (Video Program Identification) - Video program identifier - applies only to digital broadcasts: Defines the data stream containing the Video signal. Some transmission methods, such as "PoverVu", capture numbers corresponding to the channel number (frequency). Radio channels that by definition do not contain a video signal have a value of 8191 (means: empty).
LNB or (low-noise block) - Satellite Converter - a receiving device consisting of a low noise amplifier (LNA) received from a satellite signal and a frequency converter (Downconverter). The converter is mounted on the satellite dish irradiator and connected to the receiving equipment with a coaxial cable, the converter is powered by the same cable and, if necessary, the transmission of control signals. LNB are circular (Circle) and linear (Universal) polarization. The polarization of a satellite signal can be of two types: left-right (circular) and vertical-horizontal (linear).
Multifid - a set of devices (in particular, converters) designed to receive a signal from several satellites on one parabolic antenna. A multi-feed is often called a bracket on which additional converters are mounted.

DiSEqC (Digital Satellite Equipment Control) - a group of protocols for the interaction of receivers with external devices. Currently, only some switches are supported from DiSEqC external devices.
DiSeqC 1.X - allows you to control the inclusion or switching of a certain number of external devices (converters, switches, positioners). The specific number of managed devices depends on the version of this protocol, which is determined by the last digit of its cipher.
DiSEqC 2.X - additionally allows you to receive confirmation of the command. With its help, for example, it is possible to obtain information about the frequency of the converter local oscillator used.
DiSeqC 3.X - provides a dialogue between the receiver and peripheral devices. In the future, it will automate the process of setting up external devices.
USALS (Universal Satellites Automatic Location System) -Universal System for Automatic Locating Satellites (second name DiSEqC 1.3, Go X) is a satellite antenna positioner protocol that automatically creates a list of available satellite positions in a satellite system with a positioner. The system is used in conjunction with the DiSEqC 1.2 protocol.
DSR (Digitales Satelliten Radio) - digital satellite radio
DTS (Digital Theater System) - the standard for high-quality multi-channel digital audio
QPSK (Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying) - quadrature-phase manipulation. A type of modulation that uses two phase states (0 and 1800) of two carriers shifted 900 relative to each other. It allows 2 bits of information to be transmitted with one character. Used in digital satellite broadcasting.
8PSK (eight-fold phase modulation) - A modulation method in which the medium can be in one of eight different states (from 000 to 111). As one of the types of frequency modulation, the phase modulation of PSK (Phased Shift Keying) involves encoding information by changing the phase of the wave in the medium.
DVR (Digital Video Recorder) / PVR (Personal Video Recorder) - Digital Video Recorder is a computer hard disk in the receiver for recording programs.
EPG (Electronic Program Guide) - electronic program schedule. It is based on the Date / Time Table and TV Event Tables for different programs
CI (Common Interface, CI-module) - an expansion slot for electronic modules, available in the design of digital television receivers or modern TVs, which allows, through the use (insertion) of CAM-modules with a decoding card, to view closed ( coded) radio and television channels. It is used in digital broadcasting systems as part of the protection equipment for commercial media content.
Transponder - (transponder from transmitter-responder) is an automatic device that receives, amplifies and further transmits a signal at a different frequency, for example, a digital satellite television transponder (DVB-S). A television digital satellite transponder, by analogy with cable, transmits a multiplex of several channels at a specific frequency. A digital satellite receiver of the DVB-S standard, DVB-S2 finds these multiplexes and tunes to them.
Hi-Fi (High Fidelity) - a device with high-quality sound reproduction
IDTV - Improved Definition TV - Television with improved definition - the technology provides the usual video resolution standard, but due to special mathematical algorithms, the number of lines is increased and the scanning frequency (50 Hz) is increased several times. The resolution remains the same, but the visible flicker decreases to the eye.
RCA-connector (the so-called Bell) - connector for connecting external equipment (audio, etc.).
RS232C - A serial interface standard for connecting data transmission equipment.
SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier) - the carrier frequency is used to transmit a single channel. The satellite transponder is fully loaded due to the frequency multiplexing of several SCPC streams by the airborne transponder. With this method of transmission, streams can be formed by geographically spaced transmitting stations.
S-Video (Super-Video) - a video transmission standard that provides for the separate transmission of luminance (Y) and color (C) signals formed according to the PAL standard. Some TVs and high-quality video recorders are equipped with S-Video inputs.
SCART connector - a low-frequency connector with 21 pins used to connect external devices, most often a TV, VCR, and decoders. The pin assignments in different SCART connectors may be different. In some cases, the nature of the signals at the terminals of the connector is determined programmatically, through the menu of the receiver.
TID (Transponder Identification) Transponder Identifier - used only for digital transmissions: identifies a specific Transponder (unique for each transponder on this satellite). Allows the receiver to search only channels from a given transponder.
SPDI / F - Sony / Philips Digital Interface - a standard format for exchanging audio data between devices in digital form without intermediate conversion into an analog signal, developed jointly by Sony and Philips. Advantages - maintaining high quality digital signal, widespread use in the industry. USB port - output for connecting external devices (keyboards, Pointing Devices, Web-cameras, etc.).

TV Formats

SD (SDTV - Standard-definition television) is a standard based on the decomposition standards 625/50 (576i) and 525/60 (480i). The term SDTV is mainly applied to digital television. In SD format, the aspect ratio of the frame is 4: 3. There are also broadcasts with an aspect ratio of 16: 9.
HDTV - High-Definition Television - High Definition Television - This format allows you to transmit higher definition video with a resolution of: 720p - 1280 x 720p: 1080i - 1920 x 1080i or 1440 x 1080i To transmit such a signal, you need to use more a wide band of frequencies but the picture quality in comparison with SD looks much nicer on a TV.
Full HD is the marketing name first coined by Sony in 2007. It is used in broadcasts of high definition television (HDTV) and in films recorded on Blu-ray discs and HD-DVDs.
UHD 4K format , UHD quality - Ultra High Definition Television (UHDTV) or Ultra HDTV, also Ultra High Definition Video (UHDV) includes 4K UHDTV (2160p) and 8K UHDTV ( 4320p). 4K UHDTV (2160p) has a resolution of 3840 x 2160. 8K format, 8K quality 8K UHDTV (4320p) has a resolution of 7680 x 4320 Due to the development of recording devices, it became possible to shoot with such a resolution; it is planned that such panels will be mass produced in 2014-2016 years. To record one hour of video in the 8K standard, without using codecs to compress files, you need 300GB of memory. Therefore, 8K video format is transmitted or stored in compressed form, for this various codecs are used.
MPEG-2 - a format for DVDs, digital television. In this format they shoot video DVD-, HDD-, Flash-cameras.
H.264, MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (Advanced Video Coding) -. format for compressing high-definition video with high data rate. Using it, you can convert a large video file of the original format into a file of a different format, which takes up about half the disk space compared to the MPEG-2 format (DVD-quality video standard).
H.265 or HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding) is a video compression format using more efficient algorithms compared to H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC. Please note that despite the high compression ratio, the HEVC codec provides excellent image quality. Including when transmitting channels of high and ultra-high resolution (Full HD and Ultra HD). The idea of ??HEVC is to offer the same level of image quality as AVC, but with improved compression, so the video file compressed with this codec will be half as much. This is important for broadcasting in 4K / Ultra HD from satellite.

Basic satellite channel encodings

BISS is a simple encoding. The channels in it can be opened using a receiver with a built-in encoding emulator. The length of the keys is sixteen digits of the hexadecimal number system. BISS conditionally encodes and broadcasts television channels with protected content (such as football).
Viaccess - a well-known satellite coding system, very common in Europe. In Russia, the satellite operator NTV + is encoded. Early versions of Viaccess are hacked, and newer versions 3.0, 4.0, 5.9 are used.
SECA / MEDIAGUARD and MEDIAGUARD 2 all versions have been hacked and are currently not used. But they were very popular at the time because of the low cost of equipment for their reception.
Irdeto (IRDETO2 / BETACRYPT) is also a very common satellite television encoding. We are known thanks to the satellite operator Rainbow, Continent. Reception of TV channels with this encoding is possible on equipment capable of processing such encoding. Often use CAM modules.
DRE-Crypt, Z-Crypt, EXSET, DRE-Crypt 3 / ADEC is a well-known encoding in our part of the world. Broadcasts satellite operator Tricolor TV. It has recently been hacked and now broadcasts are mainly encoded with DRE-Crypt 3 / ADEC with an access card attached to the receiver.
Conax a fairly simple encoding uses the satellite operator XTRA-TV. Watching TV channels is possible on cheap equipment and is very affordable.
PowerVu The American coding system is very crack-proof. To receive you need expensive equipment. For a very long time it was considered such, but the time came and it was hacked.
Nagravision, Nagravision 2 - hacked, satellite operator DIGI uses Nagravision 3 which is still waiting for its hacker.
Cryptoworks hacked for a long time it was used on the famous porn channels Hastler
Videoguard is a very hack-resistant coding system that uses hardware binding (the card will not work on another receiver). Use satellite operators Viasat and Sky.
Roscrypt-M Russian coding system, very resistant to hacking. Suitable for MPEG-2, MPEG-4, HD video and DVB-S, DVB-T, DVB-C bands.

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